- Thickened tethered skin is usually suggestive of an underlying rheumatological/ immune condition.
- CREST syndrome
- Systemic sclerosis (scleroderma)
- Mixed CTD (overlap syndrome including features of systemic sclerosis, SLE and polymyositis)
- Eosinophilic fasciitis
- Localised morphea
- Chemically induced: vinyl chloride, pentazocine, bleomycin
- Pseudoscleroderma: porphyria cutanea tarda, acromegaly, carcinoid syndrome
- Scleroedema: thickened skin over the shoulders and upper back in diabetes mellitus
- Graft versus host disease
- Eosinophilic myalgia syndrome (L-tryptophan)
- Toxic oil syndrome
References and Links
Journal Articles and Textbooks
- Talley NJ, O’Connor S. Clinical Examination: A Systematic Guide to Physical Diagnosis. MacLennan and Petty. 3rd edition, 1998.