- Gynecomastia results from increased oestrogens, decreased androgens or drugs that mimic these effects.
Increased oestrogen production
- Leydig cell tumour (oestrogen)
- Adrenal carcinoma (oestrogen)
- Bronchial carcinoma (human chorionic gonadotrophin)
- Liver disease (increased conversion of oestrogen from androgens)
- Thyrotoxicosis (increased conversion of oestrogen from androgens)
Decreased androgen production (hypogonadal states)
- Klinefelter’s syndrome
- Secondary testicular failure: orchitis, castration, trauma
- Testicular feminisation syndrome
- Oestrogen receptor binders: oestrogen, digoxin, marijuana
- Anti-androgens: spironolactone, cimetidine
References and Links
Journal Articles and Textbooks
- Talley NJ, O’Connor S. Clinical Examination: A Systematic Guide to Physical Diagnosis. MacLennan and Petty. 3rd edition, 1998.