- Bronchial breath sounds are characterised by expiration and inspiration producing noise of equal loudness and duration, sounding like blowing through a hollow tube. The expiratory sound is heard during the greater part of expiration, whereas the inspiratory sound stops abruptly at the height of inspiration, with a pause before the sound of expiration is heard.
- Similar sounds are heard over the trachea, and the sounds occur as a result of abnormally increase transmission of airway sounds to the surface of the chest.
- lung consolidation
- localised fibrosis
- above a pleural effusion
- collapsed lung (e.g. adjacent to pleural effusion)
References and Links
Journal Articles and Textbooks
- Talley NJ, O’Connor S. Clinical Examination: A Systematic Guide to Physical Diagnosis. MacLennan and Petty. 3rd edition, 1998.