- The link between smoking and lung cancer
- Initially the research team thought lung cancer was due to car fumes or tarmac. On discovering the link between smoking and lung cancer he quickly gave up his habit thereafter. [Reference]
- Roth spots, named after Moritz Roth who identified the spots in 1872.
- They are retinal haemorrhages with white or pale centers. They can be composed of coagulated fibrin including platelets, focal ischemia, inflammatory infiltrate, infectious organisms, or neoplastic cells.
- Roth’s spots may be observed in leukaemia, diabetes, subacute bacterial endocarditis, pernicious anaemia, ischaemic events, hypertensive retinopathy and rarely in HIV retinopathy.
- Libman-Sacks endocarditis
- It is a form of nonbacterial endocarditis that is seen in association with SLE.
- The vegetations are small and are formed from strands of fibrin, neutrophils, lymphocytes and histiocytes typically on the mitral valve.
- Libman–Sacks lesions rarely produce significant valve dysfunction and the lesions only rarely embolise.
- Addison’s Disease
- Addison’s disease is named after Thomas Addison, the British physician who first described the condition in On the Constitutional and Local Effects of Disease of the Suprarenal Capsules (1855). [Reference]
- All of Addison’s six original patients had tuberculosis of the adrenal glands.
- A bubo of the bubonic plague (hence ‘we all fall down’).
- Bubonic plague is one of three types of bacterial infection caused by Yersinia pestis
- In the bubonic form of plague, the bacteria enter through the skin through a flea bite and travel via the lymphatic vessels to a lymph node causing it to swell and sometimes burst.
- Globally there are about 650 documented cases a year which result in ~120 deaths, most commonly in Africa.