- Pressure bandage with immobilisation (PBI) for snakebite in Australia
- It was developed in the 1970s by Straun Sutherland as a first-aid measure. [Reference]
- During the late 1800 doctors were trying to treat cholera patients with intravenous fluids based on Thomas Latta’s work in 1832. Various mixtures of sodium, chloride, potassium and bicarbonate were used but haemolysis was common.
- Hamburger created a solution with 0.9% NaCl and observed no haemolysis to red blood cells incorrectly concluding this was the normal concentration in blood (its 0.6%) and hence the term “normal saline” was adopted. The solution is however, isotonic and therefore haemolysis does not occur. [Reference]
- Typically Children of Papua New Guinea
- Pig Bel is a form of acute, segmental, necrotizing enteritis presenting as a common and life-threatening disease. It relates to the consumption of contaminated pig meat and is thought to be caused by Clostridium welchii type C (an organism not usually present in the human intestine).
- The perfect storm occurs during ceremonial feasts when large amounts of pork with contaminated bowels are eaten with sweet potatoes. Sweet potatoes contain a trypsin inhibitor. C. perfringens is normally digested by trypsin but its low levels secondary to a sweet potato meal result in increased levels of toxin. [Reference]
What is Fagan famous for in evidence-based medicine?
- The Fagan nomogram converts pre-test probabilities into post-test probabilities using the likelihood ratio for any given test.
- Patients with Leri’s Disease (Melorheostosis)
- It is an uncommon mesenchymal dysplasia manifesting as regions of sclerosing bone with a characteristic dripping wax appearance or flowing candle wax appearance.
- Although changes occur in early childhood, the condition often remains occult until late adolescence or early adulthood. In only approximately half of the cases is the diagnosis made before the age of 20. [Reference]