- In clinical experiments, placing as little as 50 mL of blood in the stomach can cause melena. [Reference]
- Closed de-gloving injury in which the skin remains intact but the subcutaneous tissue is sheared away from the underlying fascia.
- This results in either serous or blood forming a collection in this are of tissue damage. They are associated with considerable morbidity in trauma patients.
- Strictly speaking a Morel Lavallée lesion only overlies the greater trochanter, but similar biomechanical forces can result in identical lesions occur in other areas of the body. [Reference]
What is an Essex–Lopresti injury?
- Fractured radial head, disruption of the distal radio-ulnar joint and a torn interosseous membrane.
- If not diagnosed acutely, the radius migrates proximally and the ruptured IOM results in forearm instability.
- These can be subtle and a high index of clinical suspicion is needed. Careful examination of the wrist to look for subtle disruption of the distal radio-ulnar joint is required (not so subtle example shown below). [Reference]
What is the number one cause of fatal ingestions in children under 5 years of age (in the US)?
- Disk batteries (button battery)
- The majority of deaths reported have been due to aorto-esophageal fistula or fistula with another major vessel. [Reference and LITFL Top Ten Foreign Bodies]
What topical medication has been recently reported as a cause of methemoglobinemia in infants and children? ?
- EMLA (Eutectic Mixture of Local Anaesthetics)
- The topical anaesthetic EMLA (lidocaine plus prilocaine) [Reference]