- colloid solution
- 4, 10, 20%
- use in the critically unwell is controversial
-> volume replacement (SAFE showed that it is equivalent to N/S)
-> hypoalbuminaemia (cirrhosis, SBP -> reduces mortality and renal failure)
- prepared from pooled human plasma (donated by Australia’s voluntary non-remunerated donors)
- heated at 60° C for 10 hours and incubated at low pH to inactivate viruses
- clear, slightly viscous liquid; it is almost colourless, yellow, amber or green (albumin binds biliverdin, which is harmless)
20 % w/v = Human Albumin 200 g/L, Sodium 48 – 100 mmol/L, Octanoate 32 mmol/L
- hyperoncotic, hypo-osmotic( osmolality of 130 mOsm/kg), isotonic and the pH is 7.
- possible infection transmission
- possible allergic reactions
- very expensive (most expensive colloid) -> unable to be used in developing countries
- rates of infection transmission extremely low
- free in Australia
Cochrane meta-analysis (1998)
- 24 trials
- 1419 patients
- albumin vs N/S in hypovolaemia, burns and hypovolaemia
-> increased mortality (6% increase in absolute risk of death)
- 55 trials
- 3504 patients
-> no significant increase in mortality
Martin (CCM, 2002)
- RCT demonstrating improved mortality with albumin through improved oxygenation to hypo-proteinaemic patients with ALI.
Sort (NEJM, 2002)
- RCT showing improved mortality in patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.
SAFE trial (NEJM, 2004)
- n = 6997
- primary end points: 28 day mortality
- powered to detect a 3% absolute reduction in mortality
-> confirmed that 4% albumin was ‘safe’ when compared to normal saline in the critically unwell requiring fluid resuscitation
-> post hoc analysis showed that patients with TBI and major trauma had worse outcomes with albumin and patients with septic shock tended to better with albumin.
-> ARDS patients do better with albumin.
Martin (CCM, 2005)
- patients who are hypoproteinaemic with ARDS when given albumin + frusemide vs frusemide alone
-> improved oxygenation
-> improved haemodynamic stability
Myburgh, J. A. and Finfer, S. (2009) “Albumin is a Blood Product too – is it safe for all patients?” Critical Care and Resuscitation, 11:67-70
- SAFE as compared to N/S (except in TBI)
- possible trend to decreased mortality in severe sepsis (needs further investigation)
- hypoalbuminaemia is associated with increased mortality -> volume resuscitation with albumin doesn’t reduce
-> duration of ICU stay
-> duration of mechanical ventilation
-> duration of RRT
- no substantive evidence to justify use of hyperoncotic albumin although we it does increase intravascular volume from its oncotic effect
- use in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis
- can use in resuscitation of ICU patients (except those with TBI)
- use in ARDS in patients with low albumin with frusemide
- may be associated with benefit in severe sepsis (awaiting further studies)
- I don’t use to correct hypoalbuminaemia
- don’t use hyperoncotic albumin
- recognize expense and increase transfusion related risks
References and Links
Journal articles and textbooks
- Delaney AP, Dan A, McCaffrey J, Finfer S. The role of albumin as a resuscitation fluid for patients with sepsis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Crit Care Med. 2011 Feb;39(2):386-91. Review. PubMed PMID: 21248514.
- Finfer S, Bellomo R, Boyce N, French J, Myburgh J, Norton R; SAFE Study Investigators. A comparison of albumin and saline for fluid resuscitation in the intensive care unit. N Engl J Med. 2004 May 27;350(22):2247-56. PubMed PMID: 15163774. [Fulltext]
- Martin GS, Moss M, Wheeler AP, Mealer M, Morris JA, Bernard GR. A randomized, controlled trial of furosemide with or without albumin in hypoproteinemic patients with acute lung injury. Crit Care Med. 2005 Aug;33(8):1681-7. PubMed PMID: 16096441.
- Martin G. Conflicting clinical trial data: a lesson from albumin. Crit Care. 2005;9(6):649-50. Epub 2005 Nov 22. PubMed PMID: 16356259; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1414029.
- Myburgh, J. A. and Finfer, S. (2009) “Albumin is a Blood Product too – is it safe for all patients?” Critical Care and Resuscitation, 11:67-70 Pubmed PMID: 19281447 [Fulltext]
- Perel P, Roberts I. Colloids versus crystalloids for fluid resuscitation in critically ill patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Jun 13;6:CD000567. Review. PubMed PMID: 22696320.
- Sort P, Navasa M, Arroyo V, Aldeguer X, Planas R, Ruiz-del-Arbol L, Castells L, Vargas V, Soriano G, Guevara M, Ginès P, Rodés J. Effect of intravenous albumin on renal impairment and mortality in patients with cirrhosis and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. N Engl J Med. 1999 Aug 5;341(6):403-9. PubMed PMID: 10432325.
- Vincent JL, Dubois MJ, Navickis RJ, Wilkes MM. Hypoalbuminemia in acute illness: is there a rationale for intervention? A meta-analysis of cohort studies and controlled trials. Ann Surg. 2003 Mar;237(3):319-34. PubMed PMID: 12616115; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1514323.
Social media and web resources
- Australian Blood Service — Albumin