Eponymous Fractures

Fracture Eponymee Description /
Mechanism of injury
History /
References
Image / Reference
Bankart’s fracture Arthur Sydney Blundell Bankart
1879-1951
English orthopaedic surgeon
External rotation and abduction of shoulder.Fracture of anterior glenoid associated with anterior shoulder dislocation.A Bankart lesion occurs when the anterior/inferior portion of the labrum is torn away from the glenoid fossa. Bankart’s Fracture [Line Drawing] Bankart fracture
Barton’s fracture John Rhea Barton
1794-1871
American surgeon
Fall on outstretched handIntra-articular fracture of the distal radius with dislocation of the radiocarpal joint. Fractures may be displaced volar or dorsal direction
Bennett’s fracture Edward Hallaran Bennett
1837-1907
Irish SurgeonBennett was responsible for the introduction of Lister’s antiseptic surgical technique into Ireland
Axial load along metacarpal in a partially flexed thumbIntra-articular fracture-dislocation of the base of the first metacarpal Bennett’s fractureBennett’s Fracture [Line Drawing]

Bennett Fracture

Bennett’s Fracture

Bosworth fracture David M. Bosworth
1897–1979
Orthopedic Surgeon in New YorkMost important medical contribution was the introduction of streptomycin for the treatment of bone and joint tuberculosis [Reference]
Now an archaic term for
a type of ankle fracture-dislocation associated with severe external rotation of the foot [Reference]Fracture of distal fibula with posterior dislocation of the proximal fibula behind the tibia
Boxer’s fracture “Boxers” Usually following a ‘punch’ injury with a clenched fistFracture of distal 5th metacarpal Boxer’s Fracture Overview
Chance fracture George Quentin ChanceBritish Radiologist (Manchester) Hyperflexion of spine. Particularly associated with car accidents when the occupant is restrained with a lap belt (also known as the ‘seat-belt fracture’)Transverse fracture through a vertebral body and neural arch. Usually occurring at the thoracolumbar junction Chance Fracture [Line Drawing]

Chance Fracture

Chance Fracture

Chopart’s fracture-dislocation François Chopart
1743-1795
French surgeon (Paris)Midtarsal joint is named Chopart’s joint.
Foot dislocation through the midtarsal joints (talonavicular and calcaneocuboid joints) usually with associated fractures Chopart’s Fracture-Dislocation [Line Drawing]Chopart disarticulated this joint while performing foot amputations. Amputations through the midtarsal joint allowed weight bearing and it resisted infection better than amputations at other sites. Chopart Dislocation
Colles’ fracture Abraham Colles
1773-1843
Irish Surgeon and anatomistAlso known for his work on the nature of congenital syphilis – Colles’s law
Fall onto outstretched hand.Extra-articular fracture of the distal radius (does not extend into joint space).Dorsal displacement/angulation of the distal radius fracture fragment and volar angulation of the fracture apex. Frequently associated with fracture of ulnar styloid Pouteau fracture is the name used in France for a Colles fracture. Named after Claude Pouteau (1725–1775) the famous French  lithotomist Colles Fracture
Cotton fracture Frederich J. Cotton
1869–1938
Orthopedic Surgeon in BostonAlso defined the Cotton-Loder position for wrist fracture reduction
Now an archaic term for a trimalleolar fracture (fractures of both the lateral and medial malleolus and the posterior process of the tibia

Trimalleolar Fracture

Trimalleolar Fracture

Duverney fracture Guichard Joseph Duverney
1648–1730
French Surgeon
Direct trauma to the iliac wing.
Isolated fracture of the iliac wing.NOT associated with other pelvic fractures
Duverney Fracture [Line Drawing] Duverney Fracture
Essex-Lopresti fracture Peter Gordon Essex-Lopresti
1918–1951
British Surgeon (Birmingham)Surgeon for the Air Force in World War II, he became an expert in parachuting injuries.Also described a classification system to describe fractures of the os calcis (calcaneum)
Intra-articular fracture of the proximal radial head PLUS interosseous membrane disruption and distal radioulnar joint subluxation Essex Lopresti Fracture [Line Drawing]
Radial Head Fracture

Radial Head Fracture

Radioular dislocation

Distal Radioular subluxation

Galeazzi fracture Ricardo Galeazzi
1866–1952
Italian SurgeonGaleazzi was an important figure in the development of orthopedic rehabilitation services in Italy, to care for crippled children and soldiers wounded in World War I
Fracture of the shaft of radius (most commonly at the junction of the middle and distal thirds) with dislocation of distal radioulnar joint Galeazzi Fracture [Line Drawing]Piedmont fracture is another name for the Galeazzi fracture. It was named after the Piedmont Orthopedic Society

Galeazzi Fracture
Gosselin fracture Leon Athanese Gosselin
1815-1887
Chief of surgery at the Hôpital La Charite in Paris
The Gosselin fracture is a V-shaped fracture of the distal tibia that extends into the tibial plafond and divides the plafond into anterior and posterior fragments Gosselin Fracture [Line Drawing]
Hawkins Classification of Talar Fractures Leland G Hawkins Vertical fracturesof the neck of the talus.Four part classification system (Types I-IV) [Reference: Hawkins L: Fractures of the neck of the talus.   J Bone Joint
Surg 1970;52A:991-1002.]Increasing disruption associated with increased likelihood of associated talus avascular necrosis
Hawkins Talar Fracture
Hawkins original JBJS Article
Hawkins Sign [preservation of the blood supply to the talus]
Hawkins Fracture Type I

Hawkins Fracture Type I

Hawkins Fracture Type II

Hawkins Fracture Type II

Hill-Sachs lesion Harold Arthur Hill
1901–1973
American Radiologist (San Diego)Maurice David Sachs
1909–1987
American Radiologist (San Diego)
Impacted fracture of the posterolateral aspect of the humeral head caused by impingement of the head on the anterior edge of the scapular glenoid during anterior dislocation of the shoulder.Increased risk of recurrent dislocations

Hill-Sachs Fracture Dislocation

Hill-Sachs Fracture Dislocation

Holdsworth fracture Sir Frank Wild Holdsworth
1904–1969
British Orthopaedic SurgeonPioneer in the rehabilitation of spinal injuries
Distraction and extension of neckUnstable spinal fracture-dislocation at the thoracolumbar junction Holdsworth fracture [Line Drawing]
Hutchinson Fracture Jonathan Hutchinson
1828–1913
British Orthopaedic Surgeon
An oblique fracture of the radial styloid process with extension into the wrist joint (intra-articular extension). Also known by several other pseudonyms such as Chauffeur fracture; the ‘back-fire’ fractures and the crank fracture. Arose from the era of hand cranking to start motor vehicles.These archaic terms describe an injury by mechanism (a kickback of the crank handle) rather than by anatomy.

Hutchinson Fracture

Hutchinson Fracture

Jefferson fracture Geoffrey Jefferson
1886-1961
English neurosurgeon (Manchester)
Compression of neck with direct axial load resulting in a complex burst fracture of the ring of the atlas (C1) Jefferson Fracture [Line Drawing]

Jefferson Fracture C1 Atlas

Jefferson Fracture C1 Atlas

Jones fracture Sir Robert Jones
1857–1933
British Orthopaedic SurgeonJones was also a pioneer in radiology and published the first clinical radiograph less than 2 months after Roentgen’s original report [Reference: Jones R, Lodge O. The discovery of a bullet lost in the wrist by means of the Roentgen rays. Lancet 1896; 1(22 Feb):476–477]
Fracture of base of 5th metatarsal extending into intermetatarsal joint.Jones fractureis usually proximal to the metatarsal cuboid joint and involves the base of the fifth metatarsal at metaphyseal-diaphyseal junction.This fracture was first described by Robert Jones in 1902 after he injured himself dancing Pseudo-Jones fracture or Tennis fracture is an avulsion of the 5th Metatarsal tuberosity (at the attachment site of the peroneus brevis) occurring during forcible inversion of the foot in plantar flexionPseudo-Jones fracture is the most common fracture of the base of the 5th metatarsal, accounting for over 90%. Jones fracture and pseudo-jones fracture

Jones Fracture

Jones Fracture

LeFort fracture René Le Fort
1869-1951
French surgeon
LeFort I, or transmaxillary fracture runs between the maxillary floor and the orbital floor. It may involve the medial and lateral walls of the maxillary sinuses and invariably involves the pterygoid processes of the sphenoid
LeFort II is a pyramidal fracture
LeFort III involves a large facial unstable (floating) fragment. Also referred to as craniofacial disassociation

LeFort Fracture Type II

LeFort Fracture Type II

Le Fort’s fracture of the ankle Léon Clément Le Fort
1829-1893
French SurgeonLe Fort is known for discovering direct communications between bronchial and pulmonary blood vessels.Best known for his surgery for uterine prolapse
Vertical fracture at the anteromedial portion of the distal fibula with avulsion of the internal malleolus of the ankle. Le Fort Ankle Fracture [Line Drawing]Leading advocate for the principals of asepsis before scientific bacteriology was developed.
Lisfranc injuryLisfranc fracture-dislocationLisfranc joint complexLisfranc joint Jacques Lisfranc de St. Martin
1829-1893
French SurgeonSurgeon in Napoleon’s army who described an amputation method through the tarsometatarsal joints
Lisfranc injury refers to disruption of the tarsometatarsal joint. Injuries range from sprain (minor diastasis) through to tarsometatarsal fracture-dislocation.The presence of small avulsed fragments (fleck sign) are further indications of ligamentous injury and probable joint disruption Lisfranc joint complex” refers to tarsometatarsal articulations and that the term”Lisfranc joint” refers to the medial articulation involving the first and second metatarsals with the medial (first) and middle (second) cuneiformsFoot Radiology Anatomy Lisfranc fracture dislcoation
Maisonneuve fracture Jules Germain François Maisonneuve
1809-1897
French Surgeon
Proximal fracture of fibula resulting from external rotation.Injury may occur with medial malleolus avulsion fracture; deltoid ligament rupture; rupture of anterior talofibular ligament and/or rupture of the interosseous ligament, rupture of posterior tibiofibular ligament or posterior malleolar fracture Maisonneuve Fracture
Malgaigne’s fracture Joseph-François Malgaigne
1806-1865
French SurgeonOne of the great surgical historians of the 19th century. His book on fractures and dislocations was the first comprehensive book on the subject.
High energy impact to pelvis e.g. fall from height landing on lower limbsVertical shear fracture of pelvis. Fracture involves both pubic rami and sacro-iliac complex or sacrum. Injury characterized by rupture of entire pelvic floor, including posterior sacro-iliac complex as well as sacrospinous and sacrotuberous ligaments Malgaigne fracture: Vertical shear Classification

Malgaigne Fracture

Malgaigne Fracture

Monteggia fracture Giovanni Battista Monteggia
1762-1815
Italian physician and surgeon
Direct trauma to the forearm causing fracture of the ulna shaft and dislocation of the radial head.Fracture of the proximal portion of the ulna combined with dislocation of the radial head.Jose Luis Bado (1903–1977), an orthopedic surgeon from Montevideo, Uruguay further classified the four types of Monteggia Fracture Bado Classification of Monteggia fractures. Monteggia Fracture
Moore’s fracture Edward Mott Moore
1814-1902
American surgeon
Fracture of the distal radius with associated dislocation of the ulnar head, which causes the styloid process to be secured under the annular ligaments of the wrist
Pipkin fracture G Pipkin Impact to the knee with the hip flexed (dashboard injury)Fracture of femoral head in association with posterior dislocation of hip. Pipkin Case Study

Pipkin fracture post dislocation

Pipkin Fracture

Pellegrini-Stieda diseaseSteida fracturePellegrini’s syndrome Augusto Pellegrini
1877-1958
Italian surgeon
Alfred Stieda
1869-1945
German surgeon
Ossification of the superior portion of the medial collateral ligament of the kneeSequela of an old injury (or injuries) to the medial collateral ligament (MCL) of the knee WikliRadiography Pellegrini Steida Disease
Pott’s fracture Percival Pott
1714-1788
British surgeonSir Percival Pott experienced this compound fracture in 1756 and in 1769 gave his classical description of it.
Fracture of the lower end of the fibula and medial malleolus of the tibia with rupture of the internal lateral ligament of the ankle, caused by outward and backward displacement of the leg while the foot is fixed. Pott’s fracture (also: Bimalleolar fractures) involve at least 2 elements of the ankle ring. These fractures should be considered unstable and require urgent orthopedic attention. Pott Fracture
Rolando fracture Silvio Rolando
1714-1788
Italian Surgeon
Axial load along the metacarpal causing splitting of the proximal articular surfaceComminuted Y-shaped fracture of the base of the first metacarpal. Rolando described three cases in 1910. It is similar to Bennett’s fracture.

Rolando Fracture

Rolando Fracture

Salter-Harris fracture classification Robert Bruce Salter
1924–
Canadian SurgeonW. Robert Harris
1922–
Canadian Surgeon
Salter-Harris fractures are fractures through a growth plate. Salter-Harris ISalter-Harris IISalter-Harris IIISalter-Harris IV

Salter Harris

Salter-Harris

Schatzker fracture classification Joseph Schatzker
Canadian Surgeon[Original Reference articleThe tibial plateau fracture. The Toronto experience 1968--1975 Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1979 Jan-Feb;(138):94-104.]Although on plain X-ray the AO classification may be more reliable [Reference]
Schatzker I – Split fracture of the lateral tibial plateau without articular depression
Schatzker II – Split depressed fracture of the lateral tibial plateau
Schatzker III - Isolated depression of the lateral plateau
Schatzker IV – Isolated depression of the medial plateau
Schatzker V - Bicondylar plateau fracture with varying degrees of articular depression and displacement of the condyles
Schatzker VI – Bicondylar tibial plateau fracture extending to metadiaphysis (diaphyseal metaphyseal dissociation)
Web-Based Tutorial on SchatzkerRCSED Tibial Plateau review Schatzker Fracture Classification
Segond fracture Paul Ferdinand Segond
1851-1912
French surgeon
Avulsion fracture of the anterolateral margin of the lateral tibial plateau.Segond fractures are associated with excessive varus force and internal rotation applied to the lower leg.Commonly associated with tear of the anterior cruciate ligament (75-100%) and injuries of the medial and lateral menisci (66-70%)Reverse Segond fracture associated with valgus stress, external rotation and avulsion fracture at the tibial insertion of the medial collateral ligament (medial tibial plateau) Segond Fracture
Reverse Segond fracture
Segond fracture

Segond Fracture

Reverse Segond

Reverse Segond Fracture

Shepherd’s fracture Francis J. Shepherd Fracture of the lateral tubercle of the posterior process of the talus.An os trigonum is an accessory bone that is formed from the lack of fusion with the talus, which normally forms the trigonal process (Steida’s process).
Fracture of the trigonal process (lateral tubercle) is termed the Shepherd’s Fracture
Shepherd’s fracture [SMA Journal]Posterior process fractures (Shepherd’s fractures) are caused by damage to the posterior process of the talus by either sudden extension of the foot so that the forefoot is depressed relative to the heel (plantar flexion) or by repetitive motion (especially in athletes or dancers).

os trigonum

Os trigonum

Smith’s fracture Robert William Smith
1807-1873
Irish surgeon
Fall on outstretched hand with wrist in flexed positionA flexion and compression fracture of the lower end of the radius, with forward displacement of the lower fragment. Known in France as the “Goyrand Fracture” after the prominent French surgeon Jean-Gaspar-Blaise Goyrand (1803–1866) who clarified the anatomy of the many varieties of fractures of the distal radius

Smith’s Fracture

Tillaux fractureTillaux-Chaput fracture Henri Victor Chaput
1857-1919
French surgeonPaul Jules Tillaux
1834-1904
French surgeon
Caused by forced lateral rotation of the foot or medial rotation of the leg on a fixed foot.Leads to avulsion injury from the strong anterior tibiofibular ligament, which attaches to the lateral epiphysisSalter-Harris III fracture of the anteriolateral tibial epiphysis that is commonly seen in adolescents. Tillaux first described this particular fracture in 1892. On cadavers he found that stress to the anterior inferior tibiofibular ligament could lead an avulsion fracture – Tillaux fracture.A similar injury to the posterolateral tibia was later described by Henri Chaput the – Tillaux-Chaput fracture. tillaux fracture
Weber ClassificationDanis-Weber Classification Robert Danis
1880–1962
Belgian SurgeonBernhard Georg Weber
1927 – 2002
Orthopaedic Surgeon (Switzerland)
Type A: below level of the ankle joint with tibiofibular syndesmosis intact; deltoid ligament intact and medial malleolus often fractured
Type B: at the level of the ankle joint, extending superiorly and laterally up the fibula. Tibiofibular syndesmosis intact or partially torn, but no widening of the distal tibiofibular articulation. Medial malleolus may be fractured or deltoid ligament my be torn.
Type C: above the level of the ankle joint. Tibiofibular syndesmosis disrupted with widening of the distal tibiofibular articulation. Medial malleolus fracture or deltoid ligament injury present
Classification first introduced by Danis[Reference: Danis R, ed. Theorie et pratique de l’ osteosynthese. Paris, France: Masson & Cie, 1949]…and then modified by Weber[Reference: Weber BG. Die verletzungen des oberen sprung- gelenkes. 2nd ed. Bern, Switzerland: Huber, 1972]Classification [Line Drawing]
Weber A Fracture

Weber A

Weber B Ankle Fracture

Weber B

Weber C Ankle Fracture

Weber C

Additional References:

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