Urine Odour

Sweet or fruity odour Ketoacidosis (Diabetic, alcoholic, starvation)
Maple syrup urine disease (infants, rare)
Ammoniacal odour Bladder retention
Urine at room temperature for prolonged period (“alkaline fermentaion”)
Bacterial infection
Faecal odour Bladder-Intestinal fistula
E. coli infection
Contamination with feces
Musty odour Phenylketonuria
Sulfur odour Cysteine decomposition
Suppurative diseases of the GU tract
Faintly Aromatic Volatile organic acids most marked in “concentrated” urine specimens
Swimming pool odour Hawkinsinuria
Mousy odour
Cabbage-like odour
Tyrosinemia
Drugs and diet Characteristic odour of many drugs such as antibiotics (e.g. penicillins); food (e.g. asparagus)
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