Urine Colour

Normally, urine is some shade of yellow with acid urine usually a darker colour than alkaline urine. Pathologically, it may be any colour.

Brown Urine Green Urine Green urine Purple urine orange urine
Milky Urine PYURIA Brown Black Urine

Differential Diagnosis

Urine Colour Reference Causes
Green-yellow (olive)
Green Unusual Urine 002 Propofol infusion syndrome Drugs: Cimetidine, Promethazine, Amitriptyline, Flutamide, Indomethacin, Methocarbamol, Methylene blue, Mitoxantrone, Propofol, Phenylbutazone, Triamterene
Condition: Hartnup Disease, Indicanemia, Indicanuria
Infection: Pseudomonas Infection
Dyes: Carbolic Acid, Flavine derivatives, Indigo Blue, Methylene Blue, Resorcinol
Other: Clorets, Listerine, Magnesium Salicylate, Asparagus
Orange Unusual Urine 001 Drugs: Idarubicin, Ferrioxamine, Oxamniquine, Phenazopyridine, Rifampicin, Sulfasalazine, Warfarin
Food/supplements: Carotenes, B-complex vitamins, Senna, Rhubarb, Beets and blackberries Condition (hypercarotenemia): Diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, hypothyroidism, porphyria
Red Haematuria Stones: (calculi in the renal pelvis, ureter or bladder)
Malignancy— TCC, RCC, Wilms
Trauma—blunt or penetrating trauma to the abdomen or pelvis; a catheter will commonly cause haematuria. BPH is a common cause of intermittent gross haematuria
Renal: Primary renal disease (e.g. glomerulonephritis; including IgA-related, membranous, mesangiocapillary, focal and minimal change). Renal disease associated with / due to / secondary to systemic vasculitis (e.g. SLE, polyarteritis nodosa), Papillary necrosis secondary to analgesic nephropathy or diabetic nephrosclerosis. Hereditary (e.g. Alport’s syndrome).
Infection: Pyelonephritis, UTI, pyonephrosis, cystitis, prostatitis, TB, schistosomiasis
Coagulopathy: Anticoagulation, Inherited defect (e.g. haemophilia, Von Willebrand’s), Acquired defect (e.g. DIC, thrombocytopenia).
Red-Brown Unusual Urine 004 Drugs: Levadopa, nitrofurantoin, metronidazole
Condition: Rhabdomyolosis (myoglobinuria), bile pigment
Other: Fava beans
Brown-Black Brown-Black Urine
Purple Shades of purpleness Infection: Bacteria such as Providencia stuartii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and enterococcus species.
Condition: Hartnup Disease, Indicanemia, Indicanuria
Black Black Urine (TPR) Drugs: Stimulant laxatives (e.g. cascara, senna)
Condition: Alkaptonuria, methemoglobinuria
Other: Melanin
Milky Pyuria Image Pyuria
Pale Yellow (Straw)
Light Yellow
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