Urea

Urea is the chief end product of protein metabolism. it is formed in the liver from ammonia and excreted by the kidneys. Urea accounts for 50% of serum non-protein nitrogen

Causes of Increased serum urea

  1. Reduced Renal excretion
    • Pre-renal failure
      • Renal hypoperfusion (Shock, dehydration)
      • Volume contraction
      • Decreased effective circulating volume
    • Renal failure
      • Acute and chronic intrinsic renal disease
      • Nephrotoxic drugs
    • Post renal obstruction
  2. Increased protein turnover
    • Increased catabolism (burns, sepsis)
    • Increased protein intake

Causes of Decreased serum urea

  1. Reduced protein intake
    • High CHO. Low protein diets
    • Malabsorption states
    • Alcoholism
    • Malnutrition
  2. Reduced protein catabolism
    • Severe hepatic damage
  3. Increased anabolic state
    • Late pregnancy
    • Infancy & childhood
    • Acromegaly
  4. Drugs
    • Chloramphenicol
  5. Other
    • Over-hydration
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