Clinical Cases

Welcome to the Life in the Fast lane clinical case collection…the home of the LITFL case-based Q&A series. We have gathered over 200 clinical cases in question and answer format and alliterated their titles for your literary pleasure. Use the ‘column sort‘ option or the ‘search‘ box to find clinical cases to test your knowledge. Check out additional clinical cases collections:

TopicTitle / KeywordsLITFL Link
AnestheticPediatric Procedural Sedation, Ketamine, Anaesthesia, Pain, laryngospasmAddler 001
Bone and JointCompound ankle fracture dislocationBamboozler 001
Bone and JointMuscular Claustrophobia, compartment syndrome, fracture tibiaBamboozler 002
Bone and JointTrauma, volar Barton fractureBamboozler 003
Bone and JointBennett fracture, Edward Halloran Bennett, trauma, skier, fractureBamboozler 004
Bone and Jointtranscaphoid perilunate fracture-dislocationBamboozler 005
CardiologyBroken-Hearted Chest Drain, Intercostal Tube vs Left VentricleCurveball 001
CardiologySudden Onset Blue Leg, Phlegmasia Cerulea DolensCurveball 002
CardiologyCardiac Megacode, Cardiac arrest, R-on-T, HOCM and HypokalaemiaCurveball 003
CardiologySomething‰Ûªs Not Right, Right-sided aortic arch Curveball 004
CardiologyIntra-aortic balloon pump, overview, IABPCurveball 005
CardiologyThe Paradoxical Alternative, Pericardial tamponade, electrical alternans and pulsus parodoxusCurveball 006
CardiologyIntra-Aortic Balloon Pump Trouble-Shooting, IABPCurveball 007
CardiologyDeBakey‰Ûªs Dissection, Aortic DissectionCurveball 008
CardiologyTetraology Of Fallot And BT Shunts, Blalock-Tausig shuntCurveball 009
CardiologyCement Embolism, PVPCurveball 010
CardiologyBedside Echo in Pulmonary EmbolismCurveball 011
CardiologyNo Radial Pulse, Raynauds phenomenonCurveball 012
DermatologyStaphylococcal toxic shock syndromeDilemma 001
DislocationsIsolated Volar Distal Ulnar DislocationDislocation 001
DislocationsPosterior Shoulder DislocationDislocation 002
DislocationsSternoclavicular Joint DislocationDislocation 003
Dislocationslunate dislocation with scaphoid fractureDislocation 004
DislocationsElbow DislocationDislocation 005
DislocationsPatella DislocationDislocation 006
DislocationsMissed posterior shoulder dislocationDislocation 007
DislocationsScapho-lunate dissociation, Terry Thomas SignDislocation 008
ECGAn Electrocardiographic ExigencyExigency 001
ECGPain Free And In VT?Exigency 002
ECGRisky RhythymsExigency 003
ECGPuzzling Paroxysmal PalpitationsExigency 004
ECGMarathon-Related ECG ExasperationExigency 005
ECGSeizures, Somnolence And A Scary ECGExigency 006
ECGA Subtle Sign Of Something SinisterExigency 007
ECGSudden Syncope On The Soccer FieldExigency 008
ECGFlummoxing Familial FibrillationExigency 009
ECGTroubling TachycardiaExigency 010
ECGPost-Op Pacing PuzzlerExigency 011
ECGMetabolic MayhemExigency 012
ENTNasty Sore Throat, retropharngeal abscessEquivocation 001
ENTMy Throat Hurts, inflamed pharynx with enlarged tonsils and prominent exudateEquivocation 002
EnvironmentalExercise-Associated HyponatremiaEnigma 001
EnvironmentalHigh Altitude IllnessEnigma 002
GastrointestinalGastroenterology, GI surgery, Hepatobiliary disease, Nutrition, Epiploic appendagitisGutwrencher 001
GastrointestinalGut ache or Gordian knot, Small bowel obstruction, paraduodenal internal herniaGutwrencher 002
GastrointestinalA Lesson in History, hyperbilirubinemia, transaminitis, hepatocellular, hepatitic, khatGutwrencher 003
HaematologyDealing with D-dimer debaclesHoodwinker 001
HaematologyRecombinant Factor VIIa to the rescueHoodwinker 002
HaematologyManaging the Critical Bleeder, Massive Transfusion Hoodwinker 003
ImmunologyTraumatic angioedemaDiscombobulation 001
ImmunologySulfa Drug DiscombobulationDiscombobulation 002
ImmunologyPalpable purpura, rash, leukocytoclastic, WegenerDiscombobulation 003
InjuryDevil's Horn Sign, Hand, Extensor tendonInsidious 001
LaboratoryHAGMA, LTKR, CATMUDPILESTester 001
LaboratorySeizures, hyponatremia and ADHTester 003
Laboratorymetabolic acidosis, HAGMA, Fulminant hepatic failureTester 004
MetabolicPyroglutamic acidosis, raised anion gap, HAGMA, 5-oxoprolinemiaMuddle 004
MetabolicDiabetic ketoacidosis, hypernatremia, raised anion gapMuddle 005
MetabolicHyperammonaemia, ammoniaMuddle 001
MetabolicWaxing and Waning Weakness, Hypokalemic periodic paralysis Muddle 002
MetabolicMixed Metabolic Acidosis, CAT-MUDPILESMuddle 003
Microbialcommunity acquired pneumonia, CAPMystery 003
MicrobialEscaping bugs, ESCAPPM, infection, pyelonephritisMystery 004
MicrobialFever in a spinal patient, MeningitisMystery 005
MicrobialInfectious disease, Neurology, Meningococcal meningitisMystery 001
MicrobialInfectious disease, Respiratory, Pneumococcal pneumoniaMystery 002
MinorSubungual Haematoma, procedure, hematoma, nail, drainageInjury 001
MinorHead Injury, trauma, concussionInjury 002
MinorBoxer fracture, 5th metacarpal, hand injuryInjury 003
Minortooth avulsion, teeth, socket, traumaInjury 004
Minortrauma, shoulder, fracture, clavicleInjury 005
MinorPatella dislocation, trauma, knee, patellarInjury 006
Minornail gun injury, finger trauma, foreign bodyInjury 007
MinorParnoychia, nail bed, infection, procedure, drainageInjury 006
Minorpatella tendon rupture, trauma, kneeInjury 007
MinorEpistaxis, nose bleed, anatomy, nose, nasal, ENTInjury 008
MinorNasal fracture, nose, trauma, ENTInjury 009
Minorsuperficial burnsInjury 010
MinorNasal foreign body, FB, procedure, ENTInjury 011
MinorSternum, trauma, fractureInjury 012
MinorSkier thumb, gamekeeper, thumb trauma, fracture, ulnar collateral ligamentInjury 013
MinorAnkle sprains, trauma, ankleInjury 014
NeurologyHIV brain massMind-boggler 001
NeurologyComa with small pupilsMind-boggler 002
NeurologyBrainstem lesions, Brainstem Rules of 4Mind-boggler 003
NeurologyBrainstem lesions, Brainstem Rules of 4Mind-boggler 004
NeurologyPseudobulbar and bulbar palsiesMind-boggler 005
NeurologyComa in a spinal patientMind-boggler 006
NeurologyEye movements, coma and pseudocoma, Glasgow Coma Score, GCSMind-boggler 007
NeurologyLook left, look right, Unilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia, INOMind-boggler 008
NeurologyBullet in the HeadMind-boggler 009
NeurologyBallistically Potent Vertigo, Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo, BPPVMind-boggler 010
ObstetricAn Obstetric BleederObfuscation 001
OncologyLung metastasis from the hip, Hemithoracic ‰Û÷white-out‰Ûª, small blue round cell tumour Quandary 001
OncologyTesticular cancer, metastatic, cannon ball, metsQuandary 003
OncologyOvarian cancer, re-expansion pulmonary oedema, Meigs syndromeQuandary 004
OphthalmologyBefuddling Pupillary Asymmetry, anisocoria, prosthesis, prosthetic eye, Holmes-Adie pupil, miosis, mydriasisCase 001
OphthalmologyThe Red Eye Challenge, red eye, iritis, conjunctivitis, eyelid disease, glaucoma, keratitis, uveititis, corneal abrasion, corneal foreign bodyCase 002
OphthalmologyAn Eyelid Lump, chalazion, hordeolum, stye, eyelid lumpCase 003
OphthalmologyThe Man Who Blinked Too Much, blinking, blepharospasmCase 004
OphthalmologyExasperating Eyelids And The Red Eye, blepharitis, meibomitis, dacrocystitis, canaliculitis, ectropion, entropionCase 005
OphthalmologyCoughing Kid And Blood Red Eye, Subconjunctival hemorrhageCase 006
OphthalmologyBlind, Aching And Vomiting, glaucoma, angle closure, acute, open angle, chronic, cuppingCase 007
OphthalmologyA Curtain Descends, Retinal detachmentCase 008
OphthalmologyThat Optic Disc Doesn‰Ûªt Look Right, Optic neuritis, papilloedema, optic atrophy, pseudopapilloedema, papilitisCase 009
OphthalmologySomething In My Eye Doc, Corneal foreign bodyCase 010
OphthalmologyA Pox On Your Eye, herpes zoster ophthalmicus, corneal ulcer, vesicular rashCase 011
OphthalmologyFlashing And Floating, Posterior vitreous detachment, haemorrhageCase 012
OphthalmologyEyes Wide Split, lens dislocation, penetrating, eye traumaCase 013
OphthalmologyBlowout fracture, orbital, blow out, fracture, trauma, wall, rimCase 014
OphthalmologyThe Ocular Ultrasound Challenge, ocular ultrasound, sonography, trauma, lens dislocation, retinal detachment, papilloedema, vitreous hemorrhage, globe ruptureCase 015
OphthalmologyThe Aching Red Photophobic Eye, Uveitis, iritis, cyclitis, choroiditisCase 016
OphthalmologyPupils And Prostitutes, Argyll Robertson Pupils, syphilis, PArinaud syndrome, midbrain lesionsCase 017
OphthalmologyBlinded By The Light, UV, ultraviolet, keratitis, keratopathy, snow blindness, welder's arc, burnsCase 018
OphthalmologyThe Eye In Chemical, chemical keratitis, alkali, acid, superglue, eye injury, irrigation, pHCase 019
OphthalmologyA Gritty Sticky Red Eye, conjunctivitis, viral, allergic, bacterial, chlamydia, gonococcalCase 020
OphthalmologyStressed And Branching Out, HSV, herpes simplex virus, keratitis, dendritic ulcerCase 021
OphthalmologyYou‰Ûªre Blind And Your Hair Is A Mess, giant cell arteritis, temporal arteritis, anterior ischemic optic neuropathyCase 022
OphthalmologyThe Goggle-Eyed Fisherman, Orbital cellulitis, post-septal, periorbital, paediatrics, infectionCase 023
OphthalmologyI Can See Clearly Now, amaurosis fugax, ocular ischemic syndrome, transient visual lossCase 024
OphthalmologyMore Befuddling Pupillary Asymmetry, Horner's syndrome, anisocoriaCase 025
OphthalmologyA Man Of Singular Vision, retinal artery occlusion, CRAO, central, branch, ophthalmic artery occlusionCase 026
OphthalmologyA Woman Of Singular Vision, Central, branch, retinal vein occlusion, CRVOCase 027
OphthalmologyOut Of Sight, amaurosis fugax, papilloedema, glaucoma, vision loss, blindnessCase 028
OphthalmologyBump And Blur, lens, dislocation, trauma, ectopia lentisCase 029
OphthalmologyHalf An 8 Ball, hyphaema, traumatic iritisCase 030
OphthalmologyBlunt Trauma To The Eye, blunt trauma, eye, commotio retinae, traumatic, iritis, mydriasis, IridodialysisCase 031
OphthalmologyAnother Poke In The Eye, Corneal abrasionCase 032
OphthalmologyBashed, Blind And Bulging, Retrobulbar hemorrhage, trauma, orbital compartment syndromeCase 033
OphthalmologyLid Cracked Open, eyelid laceration, trauma, pediatricCase 034
PediatricWould you like FPIES with that?Perplexity 015
PediatricHorrible Spots and Pain, Henoch Schoenlein Purpura, vasculitisPerplexity 013
PediatricWeak and vomiting: an endocrine emergency, Adrenal insufficiency, Addison's diseasePerplexity 012
Pediatricpenile zipper entrapmentPerplexity 011
PediatricDs and Vs, and can't stand up, Gastroenteritis, Hypokalemia, weakness, fluid replacementPerplexity 010
PediatricBaby Tim‰Ûªs Cries, colic, crying, baby, infant, painPerplexity 009
PediatricNeeding a Diagnostic Kick-start, Kawasaki disease, feverPerplexity 008
PediatricPerilous Pinhead Polka-dots, petechiae, purpura, rash, meningococcemia, Henoch Schonlein Purpura, sepsis, vascilitisPerplexity 007
PediatricSplat! A vomiting infant, pyloric stenosis, hypochloremic metabolic acidosisPerplexity 006
Pediatricforeign body, respiratory tract, lower, aspirationPerplexity 005
PediatricTime to tighten those sphincters, airway obstruction, inhalational induction, difficult airway, stridor, croupPerplexity 004
PediatricNewborn with Hypercyanotic Episodes, tetralogy, Fallot, tet spell, hypercyanotic episode, congenital, cyanosisPerplexity 003
PediatricHemolysis and renal failure in a toddler, atypical, hemolytic uremic syndrome, hemolysis, renal failure, thrombocytopeniaPerplexity 002
PediatricHyperammoniacal Encephalopathy, Reye syndrome, encephalopathy, hyperammonemiaPerplexity 001
PulmonaryInfluenza (swine-origin H1N1 2009)Puzzler 001
PulmonaryPulmonary Embolism and Antiphospholipid SyndromePuzzler 002
PulmonaryRuptured Oesophagus, Boerhaarve's syndromePuzzler 003
PulmonaryS. pyogenes pneumonia complicating Swine FluPuzzler 004
PulmonaryRe-expansion pulmonary oedemaPuzzler 005
PulmonaryRuptured oesophagus, swine flu, ARDS, influenzaPuzzler 006
PulmonaryType 2 respiratory failure with comaPuzzler 007
PulmonaryRapidly progressive respiratory failure, Type 1, pneumonitisPuzzler 008
PulmonaryLung collapse, recruitment and bronchoscopyPuzzler 009
PulmonaryExtraordinary Cries, laryngoscopy, Vocal cord dysfunction, VCD, paradoxical vocal cord motion, PVCMPuzzler 010
Pulmonaryresistance futile, infection, consolidation, pneumoniaPuzzler 011
PulmonaryMan versus Machine, DOPES, hypoxia, intubatedPuzzler 012
PulmonaryBronchospastic Blood Pressure Badness, brochospasm, dynamic hyperinflation, asthma, intubated, ventilatedPuzzler 013
PulmonaryAlarmingly high pressures, ventilationPuzzler 014
PulmonaryPuffed Post-Tracheostomy, pneumomediastinumPuzzler 015
PulmonaryPuzzling out the PERC rulePuzzler 016
RenalAAA, Aortic aneurysm, rhabdomyolysisRiddle 001
ResuscitationHe Simply Looks Sick, aortic emergencyResus 001
ResuscitationSeizing and No Access!!!, intraosseous accessResus 002
ResuscitationChoose Your Own Resus Adventure, ACLS, end of life, CPRResus 003
ResuscitationDoes Roc rock? Does Sux suck?, rocuronium, suxamethonium, rapid sequence intubation, neuromuscular blockerResus 004
ResuscitationTo thoracotomy, or not to thoracotomy?, emergency thoracotomy, traumaResus 005
To Err is HumanEntrapment, Patient Safety, Decision-making, Medical ErrorError 001
To Err is HumanAre you Satisficed, Error 002
ToxicologyToxicology, toxinology, envenoming, overdose, poisoning, clinical casesConundrums
TraumaRight Main Bronchus ToothTribulation 001
TraumaBlood clot occluding right upper lobe bronchusTribulation 002
TraumaTraumatic Brain InjuryTribulation 003
TraumaDiaphragmatic ruptureTribulation 004
TraumaFull thickness burns and EscharotomyTribulation 005
TraumaTrauma And PregnancyTribulation 006
TraumaTrauma And Pregnancy ReduxTribulation 007
TraumaA Motorcyclist‰Ûªs Irreparable InjuryTribulation 008
TraumaHigh Pressure-Injection InjuryTribulation 009
TraumaHot Lips, oral commissure burnTribulation 010
TraumaMicrowave MeltdownTribulation 011
TraumaDigital rectal examinationTribulation 012
TraumaMajor Trauma Overview and PreparationTribulation 013
TraumaTrauma initial assessment and managementTribulation 014
TraumaTraumatic Brain InjuryTribulation 015
TraumaManaging spinal traumaTribulation 016
TraumaLife-threatening chest traumaTribulation 017
TraumaManaging potentially life-threatening chest traumaTribulation 018
TraumaAssessing the AbdomenTribulation 019
TraumaAbdominal InjuriesTribulation 020
TraumaGenitourinary InjuriesTribulation 021
TraumaBlunt Abdominal Trauma Decision MakingTribulation 023
TraumaPenetrating Abdominal InjuryTribulation 024
TraumaMajor HaemorrhageTribulation 019
TraumaMassive TransfusionTribulation 026
TraumaPelvic Fractures ITribulation 027
TraumaPelvic Fractures IITribulation 028
TraumaExtremity InjuriesTribulation 029
TraumaExtremity Arterial HemorrhageTribulation 030
TraumaLittle Wound, Long Knife, stab wound, chestTribulation 031
TropicalFever, Rash and a Vuvuzela, measlesTroubles 001
UrineOrange urine, rifampicinUnusual 001 001
UrineGreen urine, creme de mintUnusual 002
UrineGreen urine, Propofol Infusion SyndromeUnusual 003
UrineBrown urine, Rhabdomyolysis, MyoglobinuriaUnusual 004
Urinepurple urine, indoxyl sulfate, indirubin, Providencia stuartiiUnusual 005

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