- QRS axis between -30 and -90 degrees
How to recognise left axis deviation
- QRS is positive (dominant R wave) in leads I and aVL
- QRS is negative (dominant S wave) in leads II and aVF
- Axis diagram reproduced from David C Chung’s ‘ECG: A Pictorial Primer’.
- Mattu A, Brady W. ECGs for the Emergency Physician 2, BMJ Books 2008.
- Wagner, GS. Marriott’s Practical Electrocardiography (11th edition), Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 2007.
- ECG BASICS — Waves, Intervals, Segments and Clinical Interpretation
- ECG A to Z by diagnosis –alphabetical diagnostic approach to the ECG
- ECG CLINICAL CASES — ECG’s placed in clinical context with a challenging Q&A approach
- 100 ECG Quiz — Self-assessment tool for examination practice
- ECG Reference SITES and BOOKS — the best of the rest
- LITFL ECG IMAGE Database — Searchable database of LITFL ECG’s
- ECG and Cardiology Eponymous Syndromes — Cheats guide to eponymous emancipation
- ECG Exam Template — a framework for answering ECG exam questions.