- QRS axis between -30 and -90 degrees
How to recognise left axis deviation
- QRS is positive (dominant R wave) in leads I and aVL
- QRS is negative (dominant S wave) in leads II and aVF
- Axis diagram reproduced from David C Chung’s ‘ECG: A Pictorial Primer’.
- ECG BASICS – Waves, Intervals, Segments and Clinical Interpretation
- ECG CLINICAL CASES – Your favourite ECG’s placed in clinical context with a challenging Q&A approach
- ECG and Cardiology Eponymous Syndromes – Cheats guide to eponymous emancipation
- ECG Reference Sites on the WEB – the best of the rest
- Mattu A, Brady W. ECGs for the Emergency Physician 2, BMJ Books 2008.
- Wagner, GS. Marriott’s Practical Electrocardiography (11th edition), Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 2007.