- Normal serum corrected calcium = 2.2 – 2.6 mmol/L.
- Mild-moderate hypocalcaemia = 1.9 – 2.2 mmol/L.
- Severe hypocalcaemia = < 1.9 mmol/L.
- Vitamin D deficiency
- Acute pancreatitis
- Diuretics (frusemide)
- Congenital disorders (e.g. DiGeorge syndrome)
- Critical illness (e.g. sepsis)
- Factitious (e.g. EDTA blood tube contamination)
Example 1 – QTc 500ms in a patient with hypoparathyroidism (post thyroidectomy) and serum corrected calcium of 1.40 mmol/L
Example 2 – QT prolongation in a patient with DiGeorge’s syndrome and serum calcium of 1.32 mmol/L
- ECG BASICS — Waves, Intervals, Segments and Clinical Interpretation
- ECG A to Z by diagnosis –alphabetical diagnostic approach to the ECG
- ECG CLINICAL CASES — ECG’s placed in clinical context with a challenging Q&A approach
- 100 ECG Quiz — Self-assessment tool for examination practice
- ECG Reference SITES and BOOKS — the best of the rest
- LITFL ECG IMAGE Database — Searchable database of LITFL ECG’s
- ECG and Cardiology Eponymous Syndromes — Cheats guide to eponymous emancipation
- ECG Exam Template — a framework for answering ECG exam questions.
- Nijjer S, Ghosh AK, Dubrey SW. Hypocalcaemia, long QT interval and atrial arrhythmias. BMJ Case Reports 2010; doi:10.1136/bcr.08.2009.2216 [full text].
- Kar PS, Ogoe B, Poole R, Meeking D. Di-George syndrome presenting with hypocalcaemia in adulthood: two case reports and a review. J Clin Pathol. 2005 Jun;58(6):655-7.
- Atlas of Electrocardiography
- ECGs for the Emergency Physician 2
- Textbook of Adult Emergency Medicine, 4e
- Ganong’s Review of Medical Physiology, 24e
- The ECG In Practice, 6e
- Advanced ECG: Boards and Beyond, 2e
- Marriott’s Practical Electrocardiography 12e
- Kumar and Clark’s Clinical Medicine, 8e
- Chou’s Electrocardiography in Clinical Practice: Adult and Pediatric, 6e