Ingestion of corrosive agents causes injury to the upper airway and gastrointestinal tract.  Upper airway injury is a life-threatening emergency. Endoscopy stratifies the risk for delayed sequelae in symptomatic patients.


  • Munoz EM, Garcia-Domingo MI, Santiago JR et al.  Massive necrosis of the gastrointestinal tract after ingestion of hydrochloric acid. European Journal of Surgery 2001:67: 195-198.
  • Pelclová D, Navrátil T. Do corticosteroids prevent oesophageal stricture after corrosive ingestion? Toxicological Reviews 2005; 24(2):125-129.
  • Zargar, SA, Kochhar, R, Nagi, B, et al. Ingestion of corrosive alkalis. Spectrum of injury to upper gastrointestinal tract and natural history. American Journal of Gastroenterology 1992; 87(3):337-341.

Toxicology Handbook


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