[10ml 10 cents]
- PO, NG
- hepatic encephalopathy
PRESENTATION AND ADMINISTRATION:
Store at room temperature
10-20ml 12-24 hourly.
Hourly doses of 30-45 ml of lactulose may be used to induce the rapid laxation in the initial phase of the therapy of portal-systemic encephalopathy. When the laxative effect has been achieved, the dose of lactulose may then be reduced to the recommended daily dose of 30-45ml 3-4 times daily. Continuous long-term therapy is indicated to lessen the severity and prevent the recurrence of portal-systemic encephalopathy. The dose for this purpose is the same as the recommended daily dose.
DOSAGE IN RENAL FAILURE AND RENAL REPLACEMENT THERAPY:
- Dose as in normal renal function
DOSAGE IN PAEDIATRICS:
0.5mg/kg 12-24 hourly
1mg/kg hourly until bowel cleared then 1mg/kg 6-8 hourly
- Lactulose is a synthetic disaccharide in solution form for oral administration. It is a colonic acidifier that promotes laxation. Lactulose causes a decrease in blood ammonia concentration and reduces the degree of portalsystemic encephalopathy. These actions are considered to be results of the following: Bacterial degradation of lactulose in the colon acidifies the colonic contents. This acidification of colonic contents results in the retention of ammonia in the colon as the ammonium ion. Since the colonic contents are then more acid than the blood, ammonia can be expected to migrate from the blood into the colon to form the ammonium ion. The acid colonic contents convert NH3 to the ammonium ion (NH4)+, trapping it and preventing its absorption. The laxative action of the metabolites of lactulose then expels the trapped ammonium ion from the colon.
- mechanical bowel obstruction
- since lactulose contains galactose, it is contraindicated in patients who require a low galactose diet.
- Infants receiving lactulose may develop hyponatremia and dehydration.
See WARNINGS and CONTRAINDICATIONS
- Laboratory Tests:
No tests in addition to routine ICU tests are required
- Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions:
IMPORTANT DRUG INTERACTIONS FOR THE ICU
- Other laxatives should not be used, especially during the initial phase of therapy for portal-systemic encephalopathy, because the loose stools resulting from their use may falsely suggest that adequate Lactulose dosage has been achieved.
Diarrhoea, nausea and vomiting, gaseous distention with flatulence or belching, abdominal discomfort
Dehydration, hypokalaemia, hypernatraemia